Friday, December 27, 2019

The Ask and the Answer by Patrick Ness Book Review

The Ask and The Answer by Patrick Ness is a book that teaches people how to respond to different kind of situations, it defines the real nature of human beings, how we feel and how we make our choices. The war Mr. Ness argues he portrays that there is no good nor bad deed, he impersonates Todd and Viola with characters of making hard decisions that might seam bad to others and good to other people at the same time. The characters are held between the hard choices to make with hash consequences to follow suit. The reader becomes personally involved for the loyalty and the mess that proceeds. President Prentiss is a dictator and who forces people to follow whatever he deems fit, for instance he captures Todd and Viola, and in fact tells Todd that he is the one who killed the Spackle. Mistress Coy on the other hand is portrayed as an activist who fights for the rights and also she is involved in bombing of the New Prentiss Town (the Speckle war; â€Å"The Answer†). Mayor Leger is kidnapped for doing nothing but he remains loyal to the President.   The president forms a counter intelligent group known as â€Å"The Question† to counter â€Å"The Answer†. Patrick the author displays the president as an inhuman person whereby he kills his own son David, even after the son struggles for his approval. The book is climaxes when Todd holds president Prentiss hostage in the same room where Todd had been held captive. This leaves readers in stitches as the villain becomes the victim. At last Viola and Lee who were on the verge of death are freed. Works Cited Ness, Patrick. The Ask and the Answer: Chaos Walking. New York: Walker Books, 2009.Print

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Ralph Waldo Emerson s Philosophy On Truth And Lies

Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essay, Nature further examines the ideas of truth and concepts introduced by Friedrich Nietzsche in On Truth and Lies in a Non-Moral Sense. Nietzsche interpretations of the truths of the universe and the language we use to enforce those truths were wrong. Nietzsche, like Emerson, believed we had to conceive our own knowledge and truth in the universe, however, he did not introduce how to go about doing so. Emerson, furthers Nietzsche’s theory on truth and concepts into his own theory on Nature and proposes knowledge on how to go about seeking these truths for yourself. Nietzsche’s theory of truth states that truth in itself is a metaphor. Nietzsche was the opposite of Emerson because he had an existentialist view on the world. Whereas, Emerson believed there was a god and that he performed great miracles, giving him a transcendentalist view on the world. Nietzsche titles his essay, On Truth and Lies in a Non-moral Sense, because we receive o ur morals from our religious beliefs, but since he did not believe in a god, that highlights even further his dismay with â€Å"truths† in our language. We are told these concepts that we tell ourselves and convince ourselves are true, just to develop a logical sense of truth in our society. He believed we all formed these concepts or categories in where we group individual objects together to make sense of them. Nietzsche states in, On Truth and Lies in a Non-moral Sense, â€Å"Just as it is certain that one leaf is neverShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Waldo Emerson s Self Reliance 1259 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis Waldo Emerson is genuinely the focal point of the American transcendental movement, setting out a large portion of its thoughts and qualities in his essay,that spoke to the extreme study in theory, religion, and writing. Emerson is the scholarly father of American Transcendentalism. Despite the fact that numerous different scholars would contribute, it was Emerson s addresses and distributed papers that would offer structure to this occasionally indistinct scope of thoughts. Emerson was aRead MoreThe Role Of Social Construct And Our Role Within The Early Nineteenth Century1338 Words   |  6 PagesWe enter this world as we leave it: alone. Though every encounter, connection, and relationship that occurs between these two points may deceive us to believe otherwise, the truth of the matter is, you are all that you have in this life. Despite this reality, we find ourselves consumed by the concept of social construct and our role within it rather than establishing ourselves as an in dependent entity. While most spend their lives content with their role as a mere cog, it is the few who believe theyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By William Hemingway1712 Words   |  7 Pagesillustrations. Certain books have influenced today s reality more than others – widely praised writer Ernest Hemingway opined that The Undertakings of Huckleberry Finn, by Imprint Twain, encapsulates the Incomparable American Novel. Hemingway expressed All current American writing originates from Huck Finn†¦ there has been nothing as great since. This is an intense explanation, since it gives Twain, as the writer, remarkable impact over today s brains. It makes sense that the subjects communicatedRead MoreInto The Wild : Connecting The Film1595 Words   |  7 Pagesdifficult philosophy to truly understand and even more difficult follow and apply to everyday life. Chris McCandless, from the movie Into the Wild, goes on a long journey after college attempting to live f reely by the principles of Transcendentalist philosophers such as Emerson and Thoreau. Chris attempts to live happily, but what matters is whether or not Chris believes that his life was successful at the time of his death. He tries to find happiness within himself and discover truths in the worldRead MoreTranscendentalism, A Powerful Intellectual And Philosophical Movement1781 Words   |  8 PagesTranscendentalism, a powerful intellectual and philosophical movement founded by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the early nineteenth century, was guided by the principle that individuals are inherently good and function at their best when they are independent and self-reliant. Striving to produce a philosophy that would serve a new nation, transcendentalists believed that religious institutions and political parties would eventually corrupt the natural pure goodness of man. Transcendentalist ideology furtherRead MoreIndividual Belief System Essay1206 Words   |  5 Pagestook the hardest path. Component 2 and 3 - Reason and Experience At times I tend to think of my philosophy or philosophies of life as common sense, and universally understood; the difference between right and wrong. It’s taken me some time to get used to the idea that not everyone shares the same moral convictions as I. I’ve often had to be reminded of this because I believed my philosophy portrayed fairness, honesty, and logic, and anyone who could think for themselves would have naturallyRead MoreThe Legacy Of Henry David Thoreau1991 Words   |  8 PagesMassachusetts. He was also raised there for most of his childhood. After graduating from Harvard College he worked in his family’s pencil-making business. Later, he became a schoolteacher but he resigned after two weeks. He became acquainted with Ralph Waldo Emerson to edit the Transcendentalist magazine, The Dial, and from there, their friendship grew. They bounced political and ethical opinions off of one another despite their very different outlooks on various topi cs. Eventually, Thoreau took to philosophicalRead MoreHow Fa Has the Use of English Language Enriched or Disrupted Life and Culture in Mauritius15928 Words   |  64 Pagesrelationship between Truth and Beauty; not only are truth and beauty examined individually it is also suggested that they are equals. Beauty and truth can be seen as equals in this poem because of the lines â€Å"And I – for Truth – Themself are One- /We Bretheren, are†, He said – † (7-8). In the lines leading up to this quote the speaker explains that she has died for beauty and the man buried next to her had died for truth. Since he says â€Å"themselves are One† meaning that Beauty and Truth are one, thusRead MoreFrom Salvation to Self-Realization18515 Words   |  75 Pagesed. by Richard Wightman Fox and T.J. Jackson Lears, New York: Pantheon Books, 1-38. Reprinted with the permission of the author. 1On or about December 1910, Virginia Woolf once said, human character changed. This hyperbole contains a kernel of truth. Around the turn of the century a fundamental cultural transformation occurred within the educated strata of Western capitalist nations. In the United States as elsewhere, the bourgeois ethos had enjoined perpetual work, compulsive saving, civic responsibilityRead MoreBe a Sales Superstar25155 Words   |  101 Pagesare in harmony with your dominant thoughts. As you change your thinking about yourself and your possibilities, you change your life. There is no other way. Perhaps the most important discovery in human history, the foundation of all religions, philosophies, metaphysics and psychology is this: You become what you think about most of the time. Just think! You become what you think about most of the time. Your outer world eventually corresponds to your inner world. And since only you can decide what

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Structural Analysis for Cantilever Truss-

Question: Discuss about theStructural Analysis for Cantilever Truss. Answer: Forces in Statistically Determinate Cantilever Truss Introduction This experiment examines determinate or indeterminate trusses in redundancy besides enabling theoretical and practical analysis of principles for structures which are both determinate and indeterminate(Kassimali, 2014). A fixed framework which is composed of two members in which one of them is redundant is mounted in pinned support at one end and a roller support at the other end. The redundant member cannot prevent the structure from falling even though it can be part of the structure. The other member is a ring through which the redundant member passes ensuring all members are lying on the same plane. Electronic loading cells are used in applying loads and the forces measured using digital force display. Deflections in the framework are determined by a displacement reading meter(Menon, 2009). The force of each member can be estimated using the strain, Young's modulus and the cross-sectional area of the member. The experiment has been done in two parts: Engaging the redundant member in which we analyzed the structure as determinate Without engaging redundant member in which the cantilever truss acted as an indeterminate structural member. Theory A truss system is a structure made up of slender members joined at their ends and is often constructed using channels, wooden struts, angles and metal bars in which the end members are either welded or bolted together. The sum of the vertical forces, horizontal forces and the moments must be zero for a truss system to be statistically determinate and the equation b+r=2j is used to determine whether a truss system is determinate or not(Faraji, 2016). If b+r2j, the truss is said to be statistically indeterminate while if b+r2j then the truss system is unstable implying there arent enough reactions to constrain all the joints. Procedure The truss system is loaded in two situations-determinate with seven members and indeterminate using eight members. The loading starts at 50N and is increased by 50N each time up to 250N. Strain Gauges are used in measuring the internal forces of the members and the strain gauges used in calculating the displacement of the members. The equipment software is used in recording the values of the strain at each member. The internal forces of each member are calculated using strain, Young's modulus, and cross-sectional area. The final results for both truss situations are saved(Raikar, 2011). References Faraji, S. (2016). Fundamentals of Structural Engineering. Kansas: Springer. Karnovsky, I. A. (2010). Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis. New York: Springer Science Business Media. Kassimali, A. (2014). Structural Analysis. Kansas: Structural Analysis. Megson, T. (2005). Structural and Stress Analysis. London: Butterworth-Heinemann. Menon, D. (2009). Advanced Structural Analysis. London: Alpha Science International. Raikar, R. V. (2011). Elements of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Women In Ancient Times From Matriarchy To Patriarchy Essay Example For Students

Women In Ancient Times: From Matriarchy To Patriarchy Essay In addition to age, gender is one of the universal dimensions on which status differences are based. Unlike sex, which is a biological concept, gender is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow. Women have always had lower status than men, but the extent of the gap between the sexes varies across cultures and time. Images of women, mostly figurines of the same type as the Venus of Willendorf*, Lespugue** and Laussel*** (old statuettes representing obese women, women whose wombs and hips are extremely exaggerated) all dating to the Paleolithic period, far outnumber images of men. This has lead to speculation about the place of women in Stone Age society. Some have argued that these female figures denote the existence during this period of a prominent female deity identified usually as the Earth Mother or the Mother Goddess. On the basis of this assumption, it has been suggested that, unlike today, women played a considerably more important, if not dominant, role in Paleolithic society; that possibly a matriarchy existed and women ruled. That means men havent always been the leaders; its not an inborn quality (as a lot of them suggest)! We will write a custom essay on Women In Ancient Times: From Matriarchy To Patriarchy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Johann Bachofen was a 19th Century Swiss archaeologist and classicist who was among the first to recognize the presence of an early matriarchal stage in proto-European cultural evolution. Bachofen used Greek myth to support his arguments. He felt that there were three cultural stages that the early European culture went through. In his view the first stage was a barbaric or hetairistic stage (from the Greek word hetero meaning both) where both or actually neither sex was really in control for there was no control. The strong took advantage of the weak, and there was wide-spread wanton sexual activity, uncontrolled by values or morals. Bachofen thought that Aphrodite, Goddess of Love, was the chief deity of this time. The second stage was the matriarchal stage, where women banded together for their own defense. Strong Greek hunter/warrior goddesses such as Artemis and Athena were thought by Bachofen to have come from ancient fragments of memory stemming from this time, as well as the mythic Amazons and Furies. This middle stage saw the development of agriculture, and the rise of early civilization in Bachofen à s view. The third or last stage saw the domination of women by men. Myths depicting the rise of power of Zeus over the Titans, his many sexual conquests, the rape of Persephone by Hades, the slaying of the Medusa by Perseus, and the slaying of the Sphinx by Oedipus were thought to be a mythic account of the transition from matriarchy to patriarchy. In the mid-20th Century the British novelist, poet, and classicist Robert Graves lent much more credence to this theory of a primeval matriarchy in the Ancient World. Graves felt that there was much evidence to show that the earliest cultures universally worshipped an Earth Mother Goddess. Graves also based much of his beliefs on the analysis of ancient myths. He also felt that Goddess worship coincided with the time when calendars were primarily determined by the Moon, and noted the correspondence of the lunar and menstrual cycles, and that the Earth Mother was associated with the Moon Goddess. He also felt that the changeover to the patriarchy coincided largely with the changeover to the solar calendar and the worship of a solar deity. Extensive archaeological evidence was unearthed in the 1950s 60s and 70s from the Near East and Europe to support his claim of a universal Earth Mother. This work has shown that there was a close correspondence of Earth Goddess worship, lunar symbology and calendars and the cultivation of plants by sedentary tribes. Right from its beginnings, the theory of matriarchy, was very much argued and contradicted. It seems men had a very difficult time accepting this reality. But why is that, since, even today, in the less developed primitive societies, matriarchy still dominates. Good examples of such societies are the Trobriands, the Kirghis, the Fijian, the Samoans, the Kuril, the Bhotiya and Sikkim (Tibet), and the Khorassan. In all these cultures the wife is dominant and the rules of proper conduct are quite shocking to the western culture. Almost all these societies practice what Briffault calls clandestine marriage; the position of the husband is one of a stranger, guest, or surreptitious visitor within the group to which his wife belongs. One of the Japanese words for marriage is home-iri, which may be interpreted as to slip by night into the house, and the expression accurately describes the mode of connubial intercourse among a large proportion of primitive peoples. The mother-in-law is treated with much circumspection and in some cases with even fear. The argument of the primal matriarchy was further articulated by, among others, Friedrich Engels in his book The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State published in 1884. Engels argued that the transition from primate societies to the earliest human social structure was achieved by granting to solidarity a supreme importance which transcended even sexual competitiveness and jealousy. According to Engels, solidarity was achieved through group marriage where whole groups of kin-related women were collectively married to whole groups of men. Under these circumstances, only the mother of a child was known, so kinship tended to be traced through the female line, creating what Engels called a matrilineal clan. .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 , .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .postImageUrl , .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 , .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0:hover , .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0:visited , .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0:active { border:0!important; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0:active , .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0 .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub5463aa6eddf7b9d2482f838777a63d0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: During The 1970s, Health Concerns About The Herbicides Brought About G EssayAncient Egypt, a very patriarchal society today, is an example of a matrilineal clan. Women in Egypt seem to have enjoyed the same legal and economic rights as men, a situation which the Greeks, writing about the Egyptians, found very strange. Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, and who had visited Egypt, lists among their contrary customs that women buy and sell, the men abide at home and weave. Diodorus of Sicily, who had visited Egypt some time between 60 and 56 BC, writes that the Egyptians had a law permitting men to marry their sisters and adds that it was ordained that the queen should have greater power and honor than the king and that among private persons the wife should enjoy authority over her husband. Such notions have contributed to the so-called heiress theory which argues that the right to the throne in Ancient Egypt was transmitted through the female line. A man, no matter what his status, the eldest son of the previous pharaoh or a commoner, became a pharaoh through his relationship to the queen. The à pharaohship was legitimized through marriage to the heiress who was often the pharaohs sister or his half-sister. It has been argued, therefore, that Ancient Egypt was a matrilineal society where power resided in the female line. There is evidence to show that the female line of inheritance was still intact in the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) and, though not as strong, matrilineal descent in Ancient Egypt persisted even through the Ptolomaic period (323-30 BCE), ending finally with the death of Queen Cleopatra VII. Another example of matrilineal societies are the Aegean Bronze Age cultures. Although suppressed by patriarchal societies much sooner than in Egypt, the power of the Greek matriarchal culture surfaces even today through such stories as the Iliad and the Odyssey. This woman dominated society switched to a male dominated one as soon as invaders from Western Europe began to settle in the Balkans. Very soon the position of the Greek women dropped so low, that the only difference between them and slaves was by name. The female in ancient Greek history was excluded not only from social and political life but also from the world of reason and love (communication and expression with the male race). She had no formal education (female children were largely taught to read and write informally, in their homes and usually by their mothers or by slaves who acted as tutors) and, therefore, was considered inadequate for the training of new generations; this fell into the hands of the men. Greek wom en were married as young as 14 or 15 to a man as arranged by her family. He may be as old as 30 and could very well be dead by age 45. A widow was expected to remarry, particularly if she was still of childbearing age. The Greeks also had an interesting ritual associated with marriage: on the night in which the marriage was consummated, the bride was dressed in a mans cloak and sandals and laid in an unlit room to wait for her new husband. This ritual is considered a transition period for a man from a homosexual world of the mess (a male aristocratic association) to heterosexuality. For the respectable women, the home was the center of private life and the focus of daily activity. To run the household was her foremost responsibility, second only to her duty to bear children. Because of the overwhelming desire for sons and the need for an heir, couples rarely kept more than one daughter. The practice of exposing unwanted children was common to both cultures. The discarded babies were often picked up and raised as slaves or prostitutes. Later, laws were passed which rewarded women with three or more children in hopes of discouraging the exposure of babies. Upper class Athenian wives lived in near seclusion in the womens quarters of their husbands homes. They had next to no contact with the outside world. Their responsibilities were those of motherhood, spinning, weaving, and sewing for the making of the familys clothing, the gathering of vegetables, the harvesting of fruit, preparing and serving food, the supervision of the slaves and bathing and tending to guests. Sexual and emotional intimacy between husband and wife was minimal. Sex in Greek culture was not an activity for women to enjoy, but rather only a means to create citizens. However, there is evidence of birth control: women mostly used crude pessaries or douches made up of honey and vinegar. .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b , .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .postImageUrl , .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b , .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b:hover , .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b:visited , .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b:active { border:0!important; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b:active , .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6278ab56b8119251e7276b81afc6c72b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Confucianism Essay Middle and lower class Athenian women led a less confined life. Their husbands had higher expectations of productivity for them because of the inability to afford idleness. This sector of women had a wider circle of friends and acquaintances. Spartan women enjoyed a less restricted life than that of their Athenian sisters. Because their chief contribution to the state was producing future warriors, the Spartan women were better fed, married later, exercised and enjoyed a less restricted sex life. The Roman women shared a very similar life to that of their Greek counterparts. A womans legal status was virtually entirely dependent upon the men in her life. She was essentially passed from father to husband, surrendering her dowry and any property she was to inherit to her husband. As she was considered property, it was rare she possessed property of her own or engaged in business, commerce or anything but a limited scope of frowned-upon professions. Until the first century A.D. law did not require consent of the female for marriage. Emperor Augustus that issued a law which penalized unmarried and childless women between the ages of 20 and 50, including any divorcees and widows who didnt marry within 18 months of her divorce or two years after her husbands death. A man who divorced his wife for reasons other than adultery, poisoning a child or tampering with the household keys was required to give his wife half of his property. Wives were not allowed to bring charges of adultery against their husband, or any other man. If she lent her house out to someone for the use of adultery, she was guilty for adultery as well. Once a woman was named an adulterer, she could not marry again. Adultery was considered a legal motive for murder. The only person who could charge a man with adultery was another man. Slaves could never lawfully marry. They instead underwent quasi-marriages known as countubernium, which had no status under the law. Unmarried upper-class women, including widows, were forbidden to have sexual relations, but upper class men were entitled to have sex with prostitutes and other lower class women. While Roman womens lives focused mainly on domestic duties, they were not cut off from the events of the world outside their homes. Unlike the women of classical Greece, Roman women frequently attended social events and dined with the men in the family, thus hearing and participating in daily discussions of the problems of both family and community. Roman womens primary importance was also bearing children. In the Roman Empire, a committed wife was expected to lie still during sexual intercourse because it was believed that this ensured conception. We come to wonder what exactly happened that brought the earlier strong and independent women to such submissiveness. Merlin Stone concluded, in his book When God was a woman, that the end of the matriarchy was ultimately a result of ownership, paternity, and inheritance issues: Upon reading the Levite laws it became apparent that the sexual autonomy of women in the religion of the Goddess posed a continual threat. It undermined the far reaching goals of the men, perhaps led or influenced by Indo-European peoples, who viewed women as property and aimed at a society in which male kinship was the rule, as it had long been in Indo-European nations. This in turn required that each woman be retained as the possession of one man, leaving no doubt as to the identity of the father of the children she might bear, especially her sons. But male kinship lines remained impossible as long as women were allowed to function as sexually independent people, continuing to bear children whose paternity was not known or considered to be of any importance. Supporting the same idea, Evelyn Reed observes in her book Womans evolution from matriarchal clan to patriarchal family, that: the most important feature of marriage from its very inception has gone largely unobserved: it was a new kind of union composed of husband and wife, distinctly different form the former clan union of sisters and brothers. The two were in fundamental antagonism to each other. Thus, although marriage was introduced by the mothers within the framework of the maternal clan structure, in the end marriage would undermine the matriarchy. Therefore womankind gave up its most powerful weapon in maintaining its dominance in a world of fatherless children and brought about itself the torments of patriarchy, by instutionalizing marriage. Unfortunately, unlike the matriarchy, patriarchy has lasted to our present day. Of course there has been major progress since the days of the Roman Empire, now it is illegal to consider women lower then men in any sense (at least in some countries), yet most of us still see the world through the patriarchal curtain that covers our eyes.